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Extraction of Crude Oil

Conventional oil is extracted from underground reservoirs using traditional drilling and pumping methods. Conventional oil is a liquid at atmospheric temperature and pressure, so it can flow through a wellbore and a pipeline.

Refining & Marketing

While refining is a complex process, the goal is straightforward: to take crude oil, which is virtually unusable in its natural state, and transform it into petroleum products used for a variety of purposes such as heating homes, Burning fire and many more.


We have never missed a shipment to a customer for operational reasons. One of the main factors behind this extraordinary level of consistency and reliability is our Oil Supply Planning and Scheduling system (OSPAS), like a well-oiled machine, 24/7.


CrudeOil Rig

An oil platform, oil rig, offshore platform, or oil and/or gas production platform is a large structure with facilities to extract, and process petroleum and natural gas that lie in rock formations beneath the seabed. Many oil platforms will also contain facilities to accommodate their workforce, although it is also common for there to be a separate accommodation platform bridge linked to the production platform.

Initial Process of

Crude OilRefining

In the first step, molecules are separated through atmospheric distillation (i.e. at normal atmospheric pressure), according to their molecular weight. During the process, which is also known as topping (refining) , the oil is heated at the bottom of a 60-meter distillation column at a temperature of 350 to 400°C, causing it to vaporize. The vapors rise inside the column while the heaviest molecules, or residuals, remain at the bottom, without vaporizing. As the vapors rise, the molecules condense into liquids at different temperatures in the column. Only gases reach the top, where the temperature has dropped to 150°C. The liquids, which are become increasingly light the higher they are found in the column, are collected on trays located at different heights of the column. Each tray collects a different petroleum cut (fraction) , also known as a petroleum cut, with highly viscous preservation (hydrocarbons) like asphalt (bitumen) at the bottom and gases at the top.  The heavy residuals left over after atmospheric distillation still contain many products of medium density. The residuals are transferred to another column where they undergo a second distillation to recover middle distillates like heavy fuel oil and diesel .

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Process of


Treating involves removing or significantly reducing molecules that are corrosive or cause air pollution, especially sulfur. For diesel, desulfurization , or sulfur removal, is performed at 370°C, at a pressure of 60 bar. The hydrogen used in the process combines with the sulfur to form hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is then treated to remove the sulfur, a substance used in industry.


Kerosene, butane and propane are washed in a caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) solution to remove thiols, also known as mercaptans. This process called sweetening.

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The process of

Crude OilRefining

Once crude oil is extracted from the ground, it must be transported and refined into petroleum products that have any value. Those products must then be transported to end-use consumers or retailers (like gasoline stations or the company that delivers heating oil to your house, if you have an oil furnace). The overall well-to-consumer supply chain for petroleum products is often described as being segmented into three component

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Process of


There are still many too-heavy hydrocarbon molecules remaining after the separation process. To meet the demand for lighter products, the heavy molecules are “cracked” into two or lighter ones.

The conversion process, which is carried out at 500°C, is also known as catalytic cracking because it uses a substance called a catalyst to speed up the chemical reaction. This process converts 75% of the heavy products into gas, gasoline and diesel. The yield can be increased further by adding hydrogen, a process called hydrocracking, or by using deep conversion to remove carbon.

The more complex the operation, the more it costs and the more energy it uses. The refining industry’s ongoing objective is to find a balance between yield and the cost of conversion.


Petroleum Products and Their Uses

Each refined petroleum product obtained from crude oil has a specific use:

  1. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) , also known as butane and propane, is used as an automotive fuel or packaged bottles and used for household purposes.
  2. Gasoline and diesel are used as fuels for motor vehicles.
  3. Kerosene is used as jet fuel.
  4. Naphtha is a major petrochemical feedstock.
  5. Heating oil is used to heat buildings.
  6. Base oils are used to make lubricants.
  7. Asphalt, sometimes called bitumen, is used to pave roads
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